Head teachers are warning of “volatility” in this year’s A-level results and that some lowered grades seem to be “unfair and unfathomable”.
In England, 36% of entries had a lower grade than teachers predicted and 3% were down two grades, in results for exams cancelled by the pandemic.
But the overall results, across England, Northern Ireland and Wales, show higher A* and A grades this year.
Controversy has surrounded how results have been decided.
There was “deep frustration” in schools about the confusion caused by late changes to the results system, including the use of mock grades, said Geoff Barton, leader of the ASCL head teachers’ union.
“While there has been an overall increase in top grades, we are very concerned that this disguises a great deal of volatility among the results at school and student level,” said Mr Barton.
“We have received heartbreaking feedback from school leaders about grades being pulled down in a way that they feel to be utterly unfair and unfathomable. They are extremely concerned about the detrimental impact on their students.”
The A-level results show:
- 9% of entries were A* (up from 7.8% in 2019)
- 27.9% were A* and A (up from 25.5% in 2019)
- 78.4% of entries were A*-C (up from 75.8% in 2019)
- Psychology now the second most popular subject, after maths
- girls outperform boys, except in A*s
- in England, the moderation means that 36% of results have been lowered by one grade, 3% by two grades, 2% have increased
- there will be 25,000 university courses available in clearing, including 4,500 in top Russell Group universities
The Sixth Form Colleges Association has called the system for calculating A-level grades, “flawed and unreliable” after almost all colleges said grades were lower or much lower than predicted.
A third of college principals reported results lower or “dramatically lower” than their historic exam performance.
Almost 300,000 teenagers are finding out A-level results – some by email and others going into school, perhaps for the first time since they left in the lockdown in March.
The moderation process means almost 40% of results are lower than the grades submitted by schools – and 2% are higher.
In England, the key pieces of evidence for deciding grades has been the ranking order of pupils and how schools performed in previous years.
There will be scrutiny of whether this process has particularly disadvantaged poorer students – a problem that caused protests and a U-turn in Scotland.
Students taking vocational exams have been getting estimated results over recent weeks – with 250,000 getting BTec results this year.
For students hoping for university places, it is expected to be a “buyer’s market”, with the admissions service Ucas saying universities would be “super flexible”, even for those who have missed grades.
In England, head teachers angrily complained of a “shambles” at the last-minute switch to a “triple lock” in which students could get whatever was highest out of three assessments:
- their estimated grade
- an optional written paper in the autumn
- or an appeal through their school if the estimated result is lower than the mock exam
Heads warned mock exams were run in many different ways by schools and it was wrong to try to use them to decide exam results.
England’s Education Secretary Gavin Williamson told BBC Breakfast he will refuse to follow Scotland’s lead in allowing students whose results were downgraded to be awarded the grades predicted by their teachers.
He said that would be “unfair to so many students”, including the classes of 2019 and 2021.
He admitted there would be some students getting grades “that aren’t reflective of the work they’ve put in” but there would be a “robust appeals process”.
He congratulated students on “getting through this extraordinary year”, adding that the class of 2020 would not “lose out because of Covid-19”.
But Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer described the government’s decision to change the system hours before results were published as “shambolic”, adding that it “smacks of incompetence”.
Wales education minister Kirsty Williams said she had to act after other nations had changed from the system of standardisation to ensure Welsh students were on a level footing.
The exam boards have said the results do not show widening gaps or “unconscious bias”, such as towards ethnic minority students.
But the linking of students’ grades to the results of their schools in previous years will mean close attention to whether this works against disadvantaged children.
This emerged when exam results were published in Scotland – forcing a switch to using teachers’ predictions.
And in England there will be concerns that bright pupils in under-performing schools could be marked down.
But Mr Williamson told BBC Breakfast results did not show any disparity in grade adjustments for pupils from the most deprived backgrounds or black and ethnic minority communities, which he said was “incredibly important”.
England’s exam watchdog has said that if teachers’ predictions had been used it would have inflated results – so that about 38% of entries would have been A* or A grades.
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